ext is an elaborate extension of the minix filesystem. It has
been completely superseded by the second version of the
extended filesystem (ext2) and has been removed from the
kernel (in 2.1.21).
ext2 is the high performance disk filesystem used by Linux for
fixed disks as well as removable media. The second
extended filesystem was designed as an extension of the
extended filesystem (ext). See ext2 (5).ext3 is a journaling version of the ext2 filesystem. It is easy
to switch back and forth between ext2 and ext3. See ext3
(5).

ext4 is a set of upgrades to ext3 including substantial
performance and reliability enhancements, plus large
increases in volume, file, and directory size limits. See
ext4 (5).

hpfs is the High Performance Filesystem, used in OS/2. This
filesystem is read-only under Linux due to the lack of
available documentation.

iso9660 is a CD-ROM filesystem type conforming to the ISO 9660
standard.

High Sierra
Linux supports High Sierra, the precursor to the ISO
9660 standard for CD-ROM filesystems. It is
automatically recognized within the iso9660
filesystem support under Linux.

Rock Ridge
Linux also supports the System Use Sharing Protocol
records specified by the Rock Ridge Interchange
Protocol. They are used to further describe the
files in the iso9660 filesystem to a UNIX host, and
provide information such as long filenames, UID/GID,
POSIX permissions, and devices. It is automatically
recognized within the iso9660 filesystem support
under Linux.

JFS is a journaling filesystem, developed by IBM, that was
integrated into Linux in kernel 2.4.24.

minix is the filesystem used in the Minix operating system, the
first to run under Linux. It has a number of shortcomings,
including a 64MB partition size limit, short filenames, and
a single timestamp. It remains useful for floppies and RAM
disks.

msdos is the filesystem used by DOS, Windows, and some OS/2
computers. msdos filenames can be no longer than 8
characters, followed by an optional period and 3 character
extension.

ncpfs is a network filesystem that supports the NCP protocol,
used by Novell NetWare.

To use ncpfs, you need special programs, which can be found
at ⟨ftp://linux01.gwdg.de/pub/ncpfs⟩.

nfs is the network filesystem used to access disks located on
remote computers.

ntfs replaces Microsoft Window’s FAT filesystems (VFAT, FAT32).
It has reliability, performance, and space-utilization
enhancements plus features like ACLs, journaling, encryp‐
tion, and so on.

proc is a pseudo filesystem which is used as an interface to
kernel data structures rather than reading and interpreting
/dev/kmem. In particular, its files do not take disk
space. See proc(5).

Reiserfs is a journaling filesystem, designed by Hans Reiser, that
was integrated into Linux in kernel 2.4.1.

smb is a network filesystem that supports the SMB protocol,
used by Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT, and Lan Man‐
ager.

To use smb fs, you need a special mount program, which can
be found in the ksmbfs package, found at
⟨ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/Filesystems/smbfs⟩.

sysv is an implementation of the SystemV/Coherent filesystem for
Linux. It implements all of Xenix FS, SystemV/386 FS, and
Coherent FS.

umsdos is an extended DOS filesystem used by Linux. It adds capa‐
bility for long filenames, UID/GID, POSIX permissions, and
special files (devices, named pipes, etc.) under the DOS
filesystem, without sacrificing compatibility with DOS.

vfat is an extended DOS filesystem used by Microsoft Windows95
and Windows NT. vfat adds the capability to use long file‐
names under the MSDOS filesystem.

XFS is a journaling filesystem, developed by SGI, that was
integrated into Linux in kernel 2.4.20.

xiafs was designed and implemented to be a stable, safe filesys‐
tem by extending the Minix filesystem code. It provides
the basic most requested features without undue complexity.
The xiafs filesystem is no longer actively developed or
maintained. It was removed from the kernel in 2.1.21.

Source: - http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man5/filesystems.5.html

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